Charles Manson y sus seguidores condenados por asesinato

Charles Manson y sus seguidores condenados por asesinato

En Los Ángeles, California, el líder de la secta Charles Manson es condenado, junto con sus seguidores Susan Atkins, Leslie Van Houten y Patricia Krenwinkle, por los brutales asesinatos en 1969 de la actriz Sharon Tate y otras seis personas.

En 1967, Manson, un criminal de por vida, fue liberado de una penitenciaría federal en el estado de Washington y viajó a San Francisco, donde atrajo seguidores entre las jóvenes rebeldes con vidas emocionales conflictivas. Manson estableció un culto basado en su concepto de "Helter Skelter", una filosofía apocalíptica que predice que de una inminente guerra racial en Estados Unidos surgirían cinco ángeles gobernantes: Manson, que asumiría el papel de Jesucristo, y los cuatro miembros de los Beatles. Manson convenció a sus seguidores de que sería necesario asesinar a celebridades para llamar la atención sobre el culto, y en 1969 apuntaron a Sharon Tate, una actriz de éxito marginal que estaba casada con Roman Polanski, un director de cine.

LEER MÁS: Cómo Charles Manson tomó la inspiración de los Beatles 'Helter Skelter'

En la noche del 9 de agosto de 1969, con instrucciones detalladas de Manson, cuatro de sus seguidores condujeron hasta Cielo Drive, sobre Beverly Hills, e irrumpieron en la casa de Polanski y Tate. (Polanski no estaba en casa y los amigos se estaban quedando con la Tate embarazada). Durante las siguientes horas, se involucraron en un alboroto asesino que dejó cinco muertos, incluida una Sharon Tate muy embarazada, tres de sus amigas y una de 18 años. anciano que visitaba al cuidador de la finca. La noche siguiente, los seguidores de Manson asesinaron a Leno y Rosemary LaBianca en su casa en la sección Los Feliz de Los Ángeles; esta vez, Manson se aseguró de que los asesinatos se llevaran a cabo correctamente. Los casos no se resolvieron durante más de un año antes de que el Departamento de Policía de Los Ángeles descubriera la conexión con Manson. Varios miembros de su culto confesaron, y Manson y otros cinco fueron acusados ​​de asesinato y conspiración para cometer asesinato.

En enero de 1972, Manson y otros tres fueron declarados culpables, y el 29 de marzo los cuatro fueron condenados a muerte. El juicio de otro acusado, Charles “Tex” Watson, se retrasó debido a los procedimientos de extradición, pero también fue declarado culpable y condenado a muerte. En 1972, la Corte Suprema de California abolió la pena de muerte en California, y las condenas a muerte de Manson y sus seguidores se redujeron a cadena perpetua. Manson murió en prisión en 2017.

LEER MÁS: Charles Manson fue condenado a muerte. ¿Por qué no fue ejecutado?


Estudio de caso de Charles Manson

Como aspirante a psicóloga, una de las cosas que me gusta hacer es estudiar y hacer un perfil de criminales y asesinos en serie notorios. En este caso, voy a analizar algunas preguntas comunes con las que me encuentro en las salas de chat donde se lleva a cabo la conversación sobre estas personas.

Charles Manson fue un líder de culto estadounidense. En la última década de 1960, formó lo que se conoció como la Familia Manson, que era su culto con sede en California. Los seguidores de Manson cometieron nueve asesinatos en julio y agosto de 1969. En 1971 fue declarado culpable de asesinato en primer grado y conspiración para cometer asesinato por la muerte de siete personas, todos los cuales fueron llevados a cabo bajo sus instrucciones por miembros del grupo. Manson también fue declarado culpable de asesinato en primer grado por otras dos muertes.

Todavía hay preguntas que la gente hace con respecto a Charles Manson. Voy a responder a las dos más habituales.

Pregunta: ¿Cómo pudo Manson hacer que la gente se uniera a “La familia Manson”?

Respuesta: Manson pudo crear la ilusión de comodidad. La comodidad emocional es fundamental para el encanto de las sectas. Cuando una persona anhela la comodidad, busca personas o cosas que puedan calmar el miedo y la ansiedad que tiene. Manson pudo calmar con éxito el miedo y la ansiedad de sus seguidores mediante el uso del lenguaje.

Pregunta: ¿Cómo utilizó Manson el lenguaje para ganar seguidores?

Respuesta: Manson era muy bueno en el uso del lenguaje para involucrar a la gente. Buscaría personas que se sintieran marginadas o alienadas. Manson estaba preparado para seducir a sus seguidores con sentimientos de aceptación y comprensión.

Debido a que pudo atraer fácilmente a sus seguidores de esa manera, lo que pensaran sobre sus ideologías no importaba. No importaba cuán destructivos o peligrosos fueran. Todo eso fue tirado por la ventana. Sus seguidores ya no estaban enfocados en las ideologías de Manson. Lo que ellos fueron enfocado en hacer todo lo que tenían que hacer para continuar teniendo la “aceptación” que Manson les presentaba.

Manson fue capaz de lavar el cerebro con mucho éxito a todos sus seguidores para que creyeran que su propia las ideologías eran las solamente los correctos. Lo hizo de manera que pensara todo el grupo. Manson también hizo que sus seguidores pensaran que él los respaldaba y que estaba allí para ellos, incluso cuando nadie más lo estaba. Esta misma técnica tiende a ser utilizada por las pandillas en la sociedad moderna.

Hay dos piezas que componen la empatía. El primero se llama: Empatía cognitiva, que es la capacidad de comprender las emociones de una persona. El segundo es: Empatía emocional, que es la capacidad de compartir emociones con otras personas. Sin embargo, estas dos piezas pueden separarse. La capacidad de usar la empatía cognitiva y comprender las emociones de alguien sin intercambio esas mismas emociones pueden ser peligrosas. Esto puede ser la base de la intimidación y, por supuesto, la manipulación.

También debemos tener en cuenta que la capacidad empática es valor neutral lo que significa que puede ayudar a la gente o herir a las personas, dependiendo de las intenciones de la persona que lo muestra.

Como dije anteriormente, la capacidad de empatizar es un componente clave de la manipulación. Cuando mucha gente piensa en la empatía, lo piensa de buena manera. Piensan en alguien que puede ayudar a un ser humano herido porque también han pasado por algo similar.

Pero la empatía tiene un lado oscuro. Puedes usarlo para entrar en el cerebro de la víctima. Una vez que haya aprendido y conozca el funcionamiento interno del cerebro de la víctima, las posibilidades son infinitas.

Esto es lo que hizo Manson. Pudo fingir empatía victoriosamente y actuar como si empatizara con sus seguidores para ganarse su confianza. Luego usaría la información que se le dio. por sus seguidores, y gírelo y sosténgalo sobre sus cabezas. Lo haría de una manera en la que la víctima ni siquiera se diera cuenta de lo que estaba sucediendo. Para cuando la víctima recuperó el sentido, ya era demasiado tarde y el hecho estaba hecho.

Para citar al propio Charles Manson: “Hacer que la gente haga lo que yo quiero es lo más fácil del mundo. Todo lo que se necesita es hacerles pensar que tenemos algo especial y que todos los demás se engañen. Si eso no funciona ... hágales pensar que no están haciendo lo suficiente. O amenazar con llevarse a su familia. Lo más fácil del mundo ".

Vemos a lo largo de la historia que algunas de las personas más malvadas pudieron cometer sus actos a través del poder del lenguaje.

Por ejemplo, Adolf Hitler. Hitler fue un orador muy poderoso. Se aseguró de que sus palabras se escucharan alto y claro. Era muy bueno juntando declaraciones emocionales para atraer a la gente a su trampa. Funcionó. A lo largo de los años, murieron millones y millones de personas.

Hitler pudo lavarle el cerebro a toda una nación para que creyera que matar a gente inocente era la única manera.

Aunque promovió y cometió actos terribles, Hitler era un orador fantástico. Era muy bueno para hacer que la gente de su nación se sintiera empoderada, aunque en realidad no lo estaban. La gente de Hitler sentía que estaba contribuyendo a una buena causa, cuando en realidad todo lo que realmente estaban haciendo era satisfacer los deseos y necesidades de Hitler.

Esto es similar al caso de Charles Manson porque él también pudo hacer que sus seguidores se sintieran empoderados. Pudo hacerles pensar que estaban tomando sus propias decisiones y formando sus propias conclusiones, cuando en realidad no lo eran.

Los seguidores de Manson sintieron que estaban luchando por una buena causa debido al cuadro que Charles pudo pintar. Manson tenía una personalidad tan contagiosa cuando la necesitaba. Pudo emplear muy fácilmente el carisma para lograr lo que deseaba su corazón.

Charles Manson era un especialista en empatía cognitiva. Pudo usar esto a su favor. Sabía lo que pensaban sus seguidores, pero no le importaba. En consecuencia, usó las emociones de sus seguidores en su contra.

Manson fue capaz de manipular situaciones para asustar a sus seguidores y ponerlos en acción mediante el uso del miedo. A Manson no le molestó en absoluto, porque reaccionó al miedo de una manera completamente diferente a la de la gente típica. El miedo nunca estuvo completamente presente en el cerebro de Manson. Debido a esto, pudo hacer y pensar las cosas que hizo.


AP Was There: Charles Manson, seguidores condenados por asesinato

LOS ÁNGELES - Luego de un juicio de siete meses, Charles Manson y tres de sus seguidores fueron condenados por asesinato y conspiración en los asesinatos de 1969 de la actriz Sharon Tate y otras seis personas.

The Associated Press está reimprimiendo el siguiente artículo sobre los veredictos para conmemorar el aniversario de los asesinatos. Apareció por primera vez el 26 de enero de 1971.

LOS ÁNGELES - Charles Manson, líder peludo de un clan hippie de tipo culto, fue condenado el lunes por asesinato en primer grado y conspiración junto con tres mujeres seguidoras de los salvajes asesinatos de la actriz Sharon Tate y otras seis personas.

El estado dijo que pedirá la pena de muerte para todos.

Los acusados, que protagonizaron arrebatos salvajes durante su juicio de siete meses, se sentaron pasivamente mientras se emitían veredictos sobre los 27 cargos en su contra.

Después de que los miembros del jurado fueron encuestados, Manson murmuró en voz alta, refiriéndose a ellos: "Creo que todos son culpables". Después de todos los veredictos, le gritó al juez: "Todavía no podemos hacer una defensa. No sobrevivirás a eso, viejo".

Se ordenó al jurado de siete hombres y cinco mujeres, que había deliberado 42 horas y 40 minutos desde que recibió el caso el 16 de enero, que regresara a la corte a las 9 a.m. del jueves para la fase de penalización del juicio. Seguirán secuestrados.

El fiscal dijo que tiene cerca de 50 testigos listos para el juicio penal. La defensa ha dicho que presentará un caso tan largo o más largo que el del estado, buscando la cadena perpetua en lugar de la pena de muerte por el argumento de que todavía hay dudas sobre la culpabilidad.

La muerte o la cadena perpetua son los únicos veredictos posibles para las condenas por asesinato en primer grado.

Según la ley de California, el mismo jurado que dicta una condena por conspiración de asesinato en primer grado debe reunirse nuevamente en un segundo juicio para fijar la pena.

Si el veredicto hubiera sido homicidio en segundo grado, la pena habría sido automática de cinco años a cadena perpetua y no habría habido un juicio penal.

Los acusados ​​fueron acusados ​​de conspiración de asesinato en los asesinatos de agosto de 1969 de la bella actriz y cuatro visitantes a su mansión, y en los asesinatos una noche después de una pareja adinerada de comerciantes.

Manson, de 36 años, fue acusado de ordenar los asesinatos para desencadenar una guerra racial que creía anunciada en una canción de los Beatles, después de la cual esperaba tomar el poder.

Los otros acusados ​​fueron Susan Atkins, 22, Patricia Krenwinkel, 23 y Leslie Van Houten, 21.

La señorita Van Houten fue acusada de conspiración en todos los asesinatos, pero de asesinato solo en los de los dueños del mercado Leno y Rosemary LaBianca.

Los acusados, desterrados de la corte el 22 de diciembre por gritar, entraron sonriendo y charlando. Las mujeres vestían uniformes de prisión con cintas en el pelo largo. Manson vestía una camisa blanca arrugada con una bufanda azul. Su cabello estaba despeinado y lucía una nueva perilla.

Todos se levantaron y salieron en silencio después de que terminaron los veredictos, leídos uno por uno para cada uno de los 27 cargos. Una veintena de ayudantes del alguacil estaba en la sala de audiencia abarrotada de 92 asientos para mantener el orden.

Diputado Dist. Atty. Vincent Bugliesi, el fiscal jefe, dijo a los periodistas que buscará la pena de muerte: "No la disfruto, pero es necesaria".

Sobre el veredicto, dijo: "Estoy muy, muy contento, y el Departamento de Policía de Los Ángeles está muy contento. Esperábamos el veredicto, pero hasta que el secretario lee el veredicto no lo sabes".

¿El factor decisivo? "La abrumadora cantidad de evidencia".

El abogado defensor jefe Paul Fitzgerald, dijo que los acusados ​​le dijeron el lunes por la noche que "esperaban lo peor". Describió el veredicto como anticipado.

"Perdimos el caso cuando perdimos nuestro cambio de sede. Pensamos que teníamos tantas posibilidades de ganar el caso en Los Ángeles como ellos de ganar el Sam Sheppard", dijo, refiriéndose a un médico de Cleveland condenado en la década de 1960 por matando a su esposa en un caso sensacional. La Corte Suprema finalmente anuló la condena.

Fitzgerald dijo que la defensa argumentaría en el juicio penal que la publicidad previa al juicio perjudicó a los acusados. Dijo que pedirá una sentencia de cadena perpetua alegando que aún existen dudas sobre la culpabilidad.

Maxwell Keith, en representación de la señorita Van Houten, dijo que había sentido que ella tenía una oportunidad de luchar si no fuera por la absolución, por asesinato en segundo grado: la señorita Van Houten no era miembro del grupo asesino en la casa de Tate.

"Ella reaccionó mucho mejor que yo", dijo sobre el veredicto. "Ella no se inmutó. Parecía más solícita conmigo".

El abogado de Manson, Irving Kanarek, se negó a comentar sobre el veredicto.

El veredicto culminó un juicio en el que el estado llamó a 84 testigos y la defensa descansó sin presentar un caso. La transcripción tenía casi 6 millones de palabras y había 297 exposiciones.

En los argumentos finales, el fiscal calificó los asesinatos como "monstruosos, macabros y de pesadilla. Quizás la hora más inhumana y llena de horror de asesinatos salvajes y matanzas humanas en los anales de los crímenes registrados".

Llamó a Manson "alguien con una lujuria enfermiza y mórbida y una preocupación por la muerte". Las mujeres, dijo, eran los "robots y zombis" de Manson.

La defensa argumentó que alguien distinto de los acusados ​​podría haber cometido los asesinatos. Los abogados dijeron que Manson estaba siendo procesado por su estilo de vida impopular y que si las mujeres fueran realmente robots, no podrían realizar la premeditación necesaria para un asesinato en primer grado.

El caso fue noticia por primera vez el 10 de agosto de 1969, cuando una criada encontró los cuerpos ensangrentados de las víctimas en la finca Tate.

La actriz rubia miel de ocho meses y 25 años, esposa del director Roman Polanski, yacía apuñalada en el piso de la sala cerca del cuerpo de Jay Sebring, de 26 años, estilista de Hollywood y su antiguo prometido.

Afuera estaban los cuerpos del playboy polaco Wojciech Frykowski, de 37 años, y su novia, la heredera del café Abigail Folger, de 26. En su auto murió Stephen Parent, de 18 años, baleado cuando se iba después de visitar al cuidador.

"PIG" estaba manchado de sangre en la puerta. Una "capucha" de toalla cubría la cabeza de Sebring. La policía calificó los asesinatos de "ritualistas".

Al día siguiente, a pocos kilómetros de distancia, los LaBiancas fueron encontrados muertos a puñaladas entre garabatos ensangrentados.

Durante cuatro meses, la policía estuvo desconcertada. Luego, siguiendo un consejo de una mujer que dijo que la señorita Atkins contó los asesinatos mientras los dos compartían una celda, la policía realizó arrestos masivos de Manson y su familia, que entonces vivían en una comuna remota cerca del Valle de la Muerte.

Manson, de sólo 5 pies 6 pulgadas pero con lo que sus seguidores llamaban poderes casi hipnóticos, emergió rápidamente como la figura central. Hijo de una prostituta y habituado de prisiones e instituciones la mayor parte de su vida, había formado su "familia" en el distrito hippie de San Francisco y había venido al área de Hollywood para buscar una carrera como cantante. Los miembros de la familia lo llamaban "Dios", "Jesús" y "Satanás".

Una ex miembro del clan, Linda Kasabian, testigo estatal estrella en el juicio, dijo que Manson envió dos grupos de asesinos a las casas de Tate y LaBianca, ordenando el segundo grupo de asesinatos porque el primero fue "demasiado complicado".

La Sra. Kasabian, a quien se le otorgó inmunidad judicial por su historia, dijo que Manson fue él mismo en el viaje de LaBianca pero se fue antes de los asesinatos reales. En 19 días en el estrado, contó que vio dos asesinatos y escuchó los gritos de otras víctimas.

En Milford, New Hampshire, la Sra. Kasabian dijo sobre el veredicto: "No me sorprende, pero mi corazón realmente se lamenta por ellos".

Otros testigos dijeron que la señorita Atkins admitió haber matado a la señorita Tate después de que esta última suplicara vivir y tener a su bebé, y luego probar su sangre y encontrarla "hermosa".

Los testigos dijeron que la señorita Krenwinkel se quejó de que le dolía la mano después de los asesinatos de Tate porque había apuñalado mucho, y que la señorita Van Houten apuñaló repetidamente un cuerpo que ya estaba muerto y lo disfrutó.

Cuando llegó el turno de la defensa, los abogados sorprendieron al tribunal descansando. Dijeron que si a las mujeres acusadas se les permitía testificar, contarían historias que las incriminarían a sí mismas y aclararían a Manson. El abogado dijo que no lo permitirían.

Manson testificó en ausencia del jurado y dijo que no había matado a nadie y que no había ordenado que mataran a nadie.

En un discurso estruendoso, explicó su estilo de vida y dijo de las mujeres: "Estos niños que te atacan con cuchillos, son tus hijos. Yo no les enseñé. Tú lo hiciste".

Les dijo a las mujeres que no testificaran y se negó a repetir su historia a los miembros del jurado.

Los aspectos más destacados del juicio incluyeron frecuentes gritos y canciones de los acusados ​​que los desterraron a las salas de detención cercanas, donde escucharon a través de un altavoz. Manson se abalanzó una vez sobre el juez. Los abogados fueron encarcelados por desacato. Un abogado desapareció en un viaje de campamento y tuvo que ser reemplazado.

A pesar de todo, una banda de leales mujeres del clan Manson mantuvo una vigilia en la calle frente al Salón de la Justicia, esperando que su "padre" fuera liberado de "la torre".

Manson y la señorita Atkins aún enfrentan cargos de asesinato por el asesinato en 1969 del músico de Malibú Gary Hinman. Manson también está acusado de asesinar a Donald "Shorty" Shea, una mano que desapareció de la comuna del rancho de películas del clan. Su cuerpo no ha sido encontrado.


La lección de la "familia" Manson

Muchos de los seguidores de Manson fueron a prisión por sus crímenes y algunos se sintieron tremendamente culpables más tarde por sus acciones. Pero lo que es realmente aterrador es cómo es demasiado fácil dejarse engañar y dejarse atrapar por creer que su vida depende de un líder asombroso con ideas tan maravillosas que en realidad es un psicópata asesino. Los seguidores olvidan quiénes son realmente, sus otros intereses, familiares y amigos, y hacen cosas terribles por la causa y el líder que aman.

Las lecciones de la "familia" de Manson son una advertencia para todos nosotros: cuestione todo, piense críticamente y no crea que una sola persona tenga todas las respuestas. Tenga cuidado con el carisma y el encanto y las personas que se dedican a un líder tipo mesías porque, si bien es genial creer en grandes ideas hermosas, también puede ser el camino hacia la esclavitud y la servidumbre de culto.

Se espera que el legado duradero de Manson sea que las personas vean cada vez más a través de tales líderes de culto más rápido y los eviten más fácilmente que los seguidores que dedicaron sus vidas y asesinaron a otros para demostrar que eran verdaderos devotos.


Contenido

Infancia

Charles Manson nació el 12 de noviembre de 1934 de Kathleen Manson-Bower-Cavender, de 16 años, [8] de soltera Maddox (1918-1973), [9] en el Centro Académico de Salud de la Universidad de Cincinnati en Cincinnati, Ohio. Primero fue nombrado "sin nombre Maddox". [10] [ página necesaria ] [11] [12] En unas semanas, fue llamado Charles Milles Maddox. [13] [14]

El padre biológico de Manson parece haber sido el coronel Walker Henderson Scott Sr. (1910-1954) [15] de Catlettsburg, Kentucky, contra quien Kathleen Maddox presentó una demanda de paternidad que resultó en una sentencia acordada en 1937. Es posible que Manson nunca haya conocido a su hijo biológico. padre. [10] [ página necesaria ] [12] Scott trabajaba de forma intermitente en fábricas locales y tenía una reputación local como estafador. Permitió que Maddox creyera que era un coronel del ejército, aunque "Coronel" era simplemente su nombre de pila. Cuando Maddox le dijo a Scott que estaba embarazada, él le dijo que lo habían llamado por asuntos del ejército después de varios meses, ella se dio cuenta de que no tenía intención de regresar. [dieciséis]

En agosto de 1934, antes del nacimiento de Manson, Maddox se casó con William Eugene Manson (1909-1961), un "trabajador" en una tintorería. Maddox a menudo se emborrachaba con su hermano Luther, dejando a Charles con varias niñeras. Se divorciaron el 30 de abril de 1937, después de que William alegara "negligencia grave del deber" por parte de Maddox. Charles conservó el apellido de William, Manson. [17] El 1 de agosto de 1939, Luther y Kathleen Maddox fueron arrestados por asalto y robo. Kathleen y Luther fueron condenados a cinco y diez años de prisión, respectivamente. [18]

Manson fue colocado en la casa de una tía y un tío en McMechen, West Virginia. [19] Su madre fue puesta en libertad condicional en 1942. Manson luego caracterizó las primeras semanas después de que ella regresara de la prisión como el momento más feliz de su vida. [20] Semanas después de la liberación de Maddox, la familia de Manson se mudó a Charleston, West Virginia, [21] donde Manson continuamente hacía novillos y su madre pasaba las noches bebiendo. [22] Fue arrestada por hurto mayor, pero no declarada culpable. [23] La familia más tarde se mudó a Indianápolis, donde Maddox conoció a un alcohólico llamado Lewis (sin nombre de pila) a través de reuniones de Alcohólicos Anónimos, y se casó con él en agosto de 1943. [22]

Primeras ofensas

En una entrevista con Diane Sawyer, Manson dijo que cuando tenía nueve años, prendió fuego a su escuela. [24] Manson también se metió en problemas por absentismo escolar y pequeños robos. Aunque hubo una falta de colocaciones en hogares de acogida, en 1947, a la edad de 13 años, Manson fue colocado en la Escuela para Niños Gibault en Terre Haute, Indiana, una escuela para delincuentes masculinos dirigida por sacerdotes católicos. [25] Gibault era una escuela estricta, donde el castigo incluso por la más mínima infracción incluía palizas con una paleta de madera o una correa de cuero. Manson se escapó de Gibault y durmió en el bosque, debajo de los puentes y en cualquier otro lugar donde pudiera encontrar refugio. [26]

Manson huyó a casa de su madre y pasó la Navidad de 1947 en McMechen, en casa de sus tíos. [27] Su madre lo devolvió a Gibault. Diez meses después, se escapó a Indianápolis. [28] En 1948, en Indianápolis, Manson cometió su primer crimen conocido al robar una tienda de comestibles. Al principio, el robo fue simplemente para encontrar algo para comer. Sin embargo, Manson encontró una caja de puros que contenía poco más de cien dólares y tomó el dinero. Usó el dinero para alquilar una habitación en Skid Row de Indianápolis y comprar comida. [29]

Durante un tiempo, Manson trató de ir directamente consiguiendo un trabajo entregando mensajes para Western Union. Sin embargo, rápidamente comenzó a complementar su salario mediante pequeños robos. [26] Finalmente fue capturado, y en 1949 un juez comprensivo lo envió a Boys Town, un centro de menores en Omaha, Nebraska. [30] Después de cuatro días en Boys Town, él y su compañero de estudios Blackie Nielson obtuvieron un arma y robaron un auto. Lo utilizaron para cometer dos robos a mano armada de camino a la casa del tío de Nielson en Peoria, Illinois. [31] [32] El tío de Nielson era un ladrón profesional, y cuando llegaron los niños supuestamente los tomó como aprendices. [25] Manson fue arrestado dos semanas después durante una redada nocturna en una tienda de Peoria. En la investigación que siguió, se le relacionó con sus dos robos a mano armada anteriores. Fue enviado a la Indiana Boys School, una escuela reformada estricta. [33]

En la escuela, otros estudiantes supuestamente violaron a Manson con el aliento de un miembro del personal y lo golpearon repetidamente. Se escapó de la escuela dieciocho veces. [30] Mientras estaba en la escuela, Manson desarrolló una técnica de autodefensa que luego llamó el "juego loco". Cuando era físicamente incapaz de defenderse, chillaba, hacía muecas y agitaba los brazos para convencer a los agresores de que estaba loco. Después de varios intentos fallidos, escapó con otros dos niños en febrero de 1951. [34] [32] Los tres fugitivos estaban robando estaciones de servicio mientras intentaban conducir a California en autos robados cuando fueron arrestados en Utah. Por el delito federal de conducir un automóvil robado a través de las fronteras estatales, Manson fue enviado a la Escuela Nacional de Capacitación para Niños de Washington, D.C. [35] A su llegada, se le realizaron pruebas de aptitud que determinaron que era analfabeto, pero tenía un coeficiente intelectual superior al promedio de 109. Su asistente social lo consideró agresivamente antisocial. [34] [32]

Primer encarcelamiento

Por recomendación de un psiquiatra, Manson fue trasladado en octubre de 1951 a Natural Bridge Honor Camp, una institución de mínima seguridad. [32] Su tía lo visitó y le dijo a los administradores que lo dejaría quedarse en su casa y lo ayudaría a encontrar trabajo. Manson tenía programada una audiencia de libertad condicional para febrero de 1952. Sin embargo, en enero, fue sorprendido violando a un niño a punta de cuchillo. Manson fue trasladado al Reformatorio Federal en Petersburg, Virginia. Allí cometió otras "ocho faltas disciplinarias graves, tres de las cuales involucran actos homosexuales". Luego lo trasladaron a un reformatorio de máxima seguridad en Chillicothe, Ohio, donde se esperaba que permaneciera hasta su liberación el día que cumpliera 21 años en noviembre de 1955. El buen comportamiento lo llevó a una liberación anticipada en mayo de 1954, para vivir con su tía y su tío en McMechen. [36]

En enero de 1955, Manson se casó con una camarera del hospital llamada Rosalie Jean Willis. [37] [ página necesaria ] Alrededor de octubre, unos tres meses después de que él y su esposa embarazada llegaran a Los Ángeles en un automóvil que había robado en Ohio, Manson fue nuevamente acusado de un delito federal por llevar el vehículo a través de las fronteras estatales. Después de una evaluación psiquiátrica, le dieron cinco años de libertad condicional. El hecho de que Manson no compareciera en una audiencia de Los Ángeles por un cargo idéntico presentado en Florida resultó en su arresto en marzo de 1956 en Indianápolis. Su libertad condicional fue revocada y fue sentenciado a tres años de prisión en Terminal Island, San Pedro, California. [32]

Mientras Manson estaba en prisión, Rosalie dio a luz a su hijo Charles Manson Jr. Durante su primer año en Terminal Island, Manson recibió visitas de Rosalie y su madre, quienes ahora vivían juntas en Los Ángeles. En marzo de 1957, cuando cesaron las visitas de su esposa, su madre le informó que Rosalie vivía con otro hombre. Menos de dos semanas antes de una audiencia de libertad condicional programada, Manson intentó escapar robando un automóvil. Se le dio cinco años de libertad condicional y se le negó la libertad condicional. [32]

Segundo encarcelamiento

Manson recibió cinco años de libertad condicional en septiembre de 1958, el mismo año en que Rosalie recibió una sentencia de divorcio. Para noviembre, estaba proxeneta a una niña de 16 años y estaba recibiendo apoyo adicional de una niña con padres adinerados. En septiembre de 1959, se declaró culpable de un cargo de intentar cobrar un cheque del Tesoro de los Estados Unidos falsificado, que afirmó haber robado de un buzón, este último cargo fue retirado más tarde. Recibió una sentencia suspendida de 10 años y libertad condicional después de que una joven llamada Leona, que tenía antecedentes de arresto por prostitución, hiciera una "súplica entre lágrimas" ante el tribunal de que ella y Manson estaban "profundamente enamorados y se casarían si Charlie estuviese enamorado". liberado". [32] Antes de fin de año, la mujer se casó con Manson, posiblemente para no tener que testificar contra él. [32]

Manson llevó a Leona y a otra mujer a Nuevo México con fines de prostitución, lo que provocó que lo detuvieran e interrogaran por violar la Ley Mann. Aunque fue puesto en libertad, Manson sospechó correctamente que la investigación no había terminado. Cuando desapareció en violación de su libertad condicional, se emitió una orden de detención. En abril de 1960 siguió una acusación por violación de la Ley Mann. [32] Tras el arresto de una de las mujeres por prostitución, Manson fue arrestada en junio en Laredo, Texas, y regresó a Los Ángeles. Por violar su libertad condicional por el cargo de cambio de cheques, se le ordenó que cumpliera su condena de diez años. [32]

Manson pasó un año intentando sin éxito apelar la revocación de su libertad condicional. En julio de 1961, fue trasladado de la cárcel del condado de Los Ángeles a la penitenciaría de los Estados Unidos en McNeil Island, Washington. Allí, tomó lecciones de guitarra del líder de la pandilla Barker-Karpis, Alvin "Creepy" Karpis, y obtuvo de otro recluso el nombre de contacto de alguien de Universal Studios en Hollywood, Phil Kaufman. [38] Según la biografía de Jeff Guinn de Manson en 2013, su madre se mudó al estado de Washington para estar más cerca de él durante su encarcelamiento en McNeil Island, trabajando cerca como mesera. [39]

Aunque se había retirado el cargo de la Ley Mann, el intento de cobrar el cheque del Tesoro seguía siendo un delito federal. La revisión anual de Manson de septiembre de 1961 señaló que tenía un "tremendo impulso para llamar la atención sobre sí mismo", una observación que se repitió en septiembre de 1964. [32] En 1963, a Leona se le concedió el divorcio. Durante el proceso, ella alegó que ella y Manson tenían un hijo, Charles Luther. [32] Según una leyenda urbana popular, Manson audicionó sin éxito para los Monkees a finales de 1965, esto es refutado por el hecho de que Manson todavía estaba encarcelado en McNeil Island en ese momento. [40]

En junio de 1966, Manson fue enviado por segunda vez a Terminal Island en preparación para su liberación anticipada. Para el día de su liberación, el 21 de marzo de 1967, había pasado más de la mitad de sus 32 años en prisiones y otras instituciones. Esto se debió principalmente a que había violado las leyes federales. Las sentencias federales fueron, y siguen siendo, mucho más severas que las estatales por muchos de los mismos delitos. Al decirle a las autoridades que la prisión se había convertido en su hogar, solicitó permiso para quedarse. [32]

Formación de culto

Después de ser dado de alta de la prisión en 1967, Manson comenzó a atraer a un grupo de seguidores, en su mayoría mujeres jóvenes, de todo California. Más tarde fueron conocidos como la familia Manson. [41] Los miembros principales del siguiente grupo de Manson incluyeron: Charles 'Tex' Watson, un músico y ex actor Robert Beausoleil, un ex músico y actor pornográfico Mary Brunner, anteriormente bibliotecaria Susan Atkins Linda Kasabian Patricia Krenwinkel y Leslie Van Houten. [42] [43] [44]

Asesinatos

La familia Manson se convirtió en un culto apocalíptico cuando Manson se obsesionó con la idea de una inminente guerra racial apocalíptica entre la población negra de Estados Unidos y la población blanca en general. Un supremacista blanco, [45] [46] Manson creía que los negros en Estados Unidos se levantarían y matarían a todos los blancos excepto a Manson y su "Familia", pero que no eran lo suficientemente inteligentes como para sobrevivir solos, necesitarían un blanco. hombre para guiarlos, y así servirían a Manson como su "maestro". [47] [48] A finales de 1968, Manson adoptó el término "Helter Skelter", tomado de una canción de los Beatles recientemente lanzada álbum Blanco, para referirse a esta próxima guerra. [49]

A principios de agosto de 1969, Manson animó a sus seguidores a fundar Helter Skelter, cometiendo asesinatos en Los Ángeles y haciendo que pareciera que tenían motivaciones raciales. La familia Manson ganó notoriedad nacional después del asesinato de la actriz Sharon Tate y otras cuatro personas en su casa el 8 y 9 de agosto de 1969, [50] y de Leno y Rosemary LaBianca al día siguiente. Tex Watson y otros tres miembros de la familia ejecutaron los asesinatos de Tate-LaBianca, presuntamente actuando bajo las instrucciones de Manson. [51] [52] Si bien más tarde se aceptó en el juicio que Manson nunca ordenó expresamente los asesinatos, se consideró que su comportamiento justificaba una condena por asesinato en primer grado y conspiración para cometer asesinato. Evidence pointed to Manson's obsession with inciting a race war by killing those he thought were "pigs" and his belief that this would show the "nigger" how to do the same. [4] Family members were also responsible for other assaults, thefts, crimes, and the attempted assassination of President Gerald Ford in Sacramento by Lynette "Squeaky" Fromme. [53]

While it is often thought that Manson never murdered or attempted to murder anyone himself, true crime writer James Buddy Day, in his book Hippie Cult Leader: The Last Words of Charles Manson, claimed that Manson shot drug dealer Bernard Crowe on July 1, 1969. [54] Crowe survived. [55]

Trial

The State of California tried Manson for the Tate and LaBianca murders with co-defendants, Leslie Van Houten, Susan Atkins, and Patricia Krenwinkel. Co-defendant Tex Watson was tried at a later date after being extradited from Texas. [56]

The trial began on July 15, 1970. Manson appeared wearing fringed buckskins, his typical clothing at Spahn Ranch. [57]

On July 24, 1970 — the first day of testimony — Manson appeared in court with an "X" carved into his forehead. His followers issued a statement from Manson saying "I have "X'd myself from your world". [58] The following day, Manson's co-defendants, Van Houten, Atkins, and Krenwinkel, also appeared in court, with an "X" carved in their foreheads. [59] [60]

Members of the Manson Family camped outside of the courthouse, and held a vigil on a street corner, because they were excluded from the courtroom for being disruptive. Some of Manson's followers also carved crosses into their heads. [58] During the trial, members of the Manson Family appeared in saffron robes, and threatened to immolate themselves if Manson was convicted – just as nuns in Vietnam had done in protest of the war. [57] [61]

The State presented dozens of witnesses during the trial. However, its primary witness was Linda Kasabian, who was present during the Tate murders on August 8–9, 1969. Kasabian provided graphic testimony of the Tate murders, which she observed from outside the house. She was also in the car with Manson on the following evening, when he ordered the LaBianca killings. Kasabian spent days on the witness stand, being cross-examined by the defendants' lawyers. After testifying, Kasabian went into hiding for the next forty years. [10] [ página necesaria ]

In early August 1970, President Richard Nixon told reporters that he believed that Manson was guilty of the murders, "either directly or indirectly". [62] Manson obtained a copy of the newspaper and held up the headline to the jury. [10] [ página necesaria ] The defendants' attorneys then called for a mistrial, arguing that their clients had allegedly killed far fewer people than "Nixon's war machine in Vietnam". [62] Judge Charles H. Older polled each member of the jury, to determine whether each juror saw the headline and whether it affected his or her ability to make an independent decision. All of the jurors affirmed that they could still decide independently. [10] [ página necesaria ] Shortly after, the female defendants – Atkins, Krenwinkel and Van Houten – were removed from the room for chanting, "Nixon says we are guilty. So why go on?" [10] [ página necesaria ]

On October 5, 1970, Manson attempted to attack Judge Older while the jury was present in the room. Manson first threatened Older, and then jumped over his lawyer's table with a sharpened pencil, in the direction of Older. Manson was restrained before reaching the judge. While being led out of the courtroom, Manson screamed at Older, "In the name of Christian justice, someone should cut your head off!" Meanwhile, the female defendants began chanting something in Latin. Judge Older began wearing a .38 caliber pistol to the trial afterwards. [63]

On November 16, 1970, the State of California rested its case after presenting twenty-two weeks worth of evidence. The defendants then stunned the courtroom by announcing that they had no witnesses to present, and rested their case. [64]

Manson's testimony

Immediately after defendants' counsel rested their case, the three female defendants shouted that they wanted to testify. Their attorneys advised the court, in chambers, that they opposed their clients testifying. Apparently, the female defendants wanted to testify that Manson had had nothing to do with the murders. [sesenta y cinco]

The following day, Manson himself announced that he too wanted to testify. The judge allowed Manson to testify outside the presence of the jury. He stated as follows:

These children that come at you with knives, they are your children. You taught them. I didn't teach them. I just tried to help them stand up. Most of the people at the ranch that you call the Family were just people that you did not want. [sesenta y cinco]

Manson continued, equating his actions to those of society at large:

I know this: that in your hearts and your souls, you are as much responsible for the Vietnam war as I am for killing these people. . I can't judge any of you. I have no malice against you and no ribbons for you. But I think that it is high time that you all start looking at yourselves, and judging the lie that you live in. [66]

Manson concluded, claiming that he too was a creation of a system that he viewed as fundamentally violent and unjust:

My father is the jailhouse. My father is your system. . I am only what you made me. I am only a reflection of you. . You want to kill me? ¡Decir ah! I am already dead – have been all my life. I've spent twenty-three years in tombs that you have built. [66]

After Manson finished speaking, Judge Older offered to let him testify before the jury. Manson replied that it was not necessary. Manson then told the female defendants that they no longer needed to testify. [67]

On November 30, 1970, Leslie Van Houten's attorney, Ronald Hughes, failed to appear for the closing arguments in the trial. [67] He was later found dead in a California state park. His body was badly decomposed, and it was impossible to tell the cause of death. Hughes had disagreed with Manson during the trial, taking the position that his client, Van Houten, should not testify to claim that Manson had no involvement with the murders. Some have alleged that Hughes may have been murdered by the Manson Family. [68]

On January 25, 1971, the jury found Manson, Krenwinkel and Atkins guilty of first degree murder in all seven of the Tate and LaBianca killings. The jury found Van Houten guilty of murder in the first degree in the LaBianca killings. [69]

Sentencing

After the convictions, the court held a separate hearing before the same jury to determine if the defendants should receive the death sentence.

Each of the three female defendants – Atkins, Van Houten, and Krenwinkel – took the stand. They provided graphic details of the murders and testified that Manson was not involved. According to the female defendants, they had committed the crimes in order to help fellow Manson Family member Bobby Beausoleil get out of jail, where he was being held for the murder of Gary Hinman. The female defendants testified that the Tate-LaBianca murders were intended to be copycat crimes, similar to the Hinman killing. Atkins, Krenwinkel and Van Houten claimed they did this under the direction of the state's prime witness, Linda Kasabian. The defendants did not express remorse for the killings. [70]

On March 4, 1971, during the sentencing hearings, Manson trimmed his beard to a fork and shaved his head, telling the media, "I am the Devil, and the Devil always has a bald head!" However, the female defendants did not immediately shave their own heads. The state prosecutor, Vincent Bugliosi, later speculated in his book, Helter Skelter, that they refrained from doing so, in order to not appear to be completely controlled by Manson (as they had when they each carved an "X" in their foreheads, earlier in the trial). [71]

On March 29, 1971, the jury sentenced all four defendants to death. When the female defendants were led into the courtroom, each of them had shaved their heads, as had Manson. After hearing the sentence, Atkins shouted to the jury, "Better lock your doors and watch your kids." [72]

The Manson murder trial was the longest murder trial in American history when it occurred, lasting nine and a half months. The trial was among the most publicized American criminal cases of the twentieth century and was dubbed the "trial of the century". The jury had been sequestered for 225 days, longer than any jury before it. The trial transcript alone ran to 209 volumes or 31,716 pages. [72]

Post-trial events

Manson was admitted to state prison from Los Angeles County on April 22, 1971, for seven counts of first-degree murder and one count of conspiracy to commit murder for the deaths of Abigail Ann Folger, Wojciech Frykowski, Steven Earl Parent, Sharon Tate Polanski, Jay Sebring, and Leno and Rosemary LaBianca. As the death penalty was ruled unconstitutional in 1972, Manson was re-sentenced to life with the possibility of parole. His initial death sentence was modified to life on February 2, 1977.

On December 13, 1971, Manson was convicted of first-degree murder in Los Angeles County Court for the July 25, 1969 death of musician Gary Hinman. He was also convicted of first-degree murder for the August 1969 death of Donald Jerome "Shorty" Shea. Following the 1972 decision of California v. Anderson, California's death sentences were ruled unconstitutional and that "any prisoner now under a sentence of death . may file a petition for writ of habeas corpus in the superior court inviting that court to modify its judgment to provide for the appropriate alternative punishment of life imprisonment or life imprisonment without possibility of parole specified by statute for the crime for which he was sentenced to death." [73] Manson was thus eligible to apply for parole after seven years' incarceration. [74] His first parole hearing took place on November 16, 1978, at California Medical Facility in Vacaville, where his petition was rejected. [75] [76]

1980s–1990s

In the 1980s, Manson gave four interviews to the mainstream media. The first, recorded at California Medical Facility and aired on June 13, 1981, was by Tom Snyder for NBC's The Tomorrow Show. The second, recorded at San Quentin State Prison and aired on March 7, 1986, was by Charlie Rose for CBS News Nightwatch, and it won the national news Emmy Award for Best Interview in 1987. [77] The third, with Geraldo Rivera in 1988, was part of the journalist's prime-time special on Satanism. [78] At least as early as the Snyder interview, Manson's forehead bore a swastika in the spot where the X carved during his trial had been. [79]

Nikolas Schreck conducted an interview with Manson for his documentary Charles Manson Superstar (1989). Schreck concluded that Manson was not insane but merely acting that way out of frustration. [80] [81]

On September 25, 1984, Manson was imprisoned in the California Medical Facility at Vacaville when inmate Jan Holmstrom poured paint thinner on him and set him on fire, causing second and third degree burns on over 20 percent of his body. Holmstrom explained that Manson had objected to his Hare Krishna chants and verbally threatened him. [75] [ verificación fallida ]

After 1989, Manson was housed in the Protective Housing Unit at California State Prison, Corcoran, in Kings County. The unit housed inmates whose safety would be endangered by general-population housing. He had also been housed at San Quentin State Prison, [77] California Medical Facility in Vacaville, [75] [ verificación fallida ] Folsom State Prison and Pelican Bay State Prison. [82] [ cita necesaria ] In June 1997, a prison disciplinary committee found that Manson had been trafficking drugs. [82] He was moved from Corcoran State Prison to Pelican Bay State Prison a month later. [82]

2000s–2017

On September 5, 2007, MSNBC aired The Mind of Manson, a complete version of a 1987 interview at California's San Quentin State Prison. The footage of the "unshackled, unapologetic, and unruly" Manson had been considered "so unbelievable" that only seven minutes of it had originally been broadcast on Hoy dia, for which it had been recorded. [83]

In March 2009, a photograph of Manson showing a receding hairline, grizzled gray beard and hair, and the swastika tattoo still prominent on his forehead was released to the public by California corrections officials. [84]

In 2010, the Los Angeles Times reported that Manson was caught with a cell phone in 2009 and had contacted people in California, New Jersey, Florida and British Columbia. A spokesperson for the California Department of Corrections stated that it was not known if Manson had used the phone for criminal purposes. [85] Manson also recorded an album of acoustic pop songs with additional production by Henry Rollins, titled Completion. Only five copies were pressed: two belong to Rollins, while the other three are presumed to have been with Manson. The album remains unreleased. [86]

On January 1, 2017, Manson was suffering from gastrointestinal bleeding at California State Prison in Corcoran when he was rushed to Mercy Hospital in downtown Bakersfield. A source told the Los Angeles Times that Manson was seriously ill, [87] and TMZ reported that his doctors considered him "too weak" for surgery. [88] He was returned to prison on January 6, and the nature of his treatment was not disclosed. [89] On November 15, 2017, an unauthorized source said that Manson had returned to a hospital in Bakersfield, [90] but the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation did not confirm this in conformity with state and federal medical privacy laws. [91] He died from cardiac arrest resulting from respiratory failure and colon cancer at the hospital on November 19. [2] [92] [93]

Three people stated their intention to claim Manson's estate and body. [94] [95] [96] Manson's grandson Jason Freeman stated his intent to take possession of Manson's remains and personal effects. [97] Manson's pen-pal Michael Channels claimed to have a Manson will dated February 14, 2002, which left Manson's entire estate and Manson's body to Channels. [98] [99] Manson's friend Ben Gurecki claimed to have a Manson will dated January 2017 which gives the estate and Manson's body to Matthew Roberts, another alleged son of Manson. [94] [95] In 2012, CNN ran a DNA match to see if Freeman and Roberts were related to each other and found that they were not. According to CNN, two prior attempts to DNA match Roberts with genetic material from Manson failed, but the results were reportedly contaminated. [100] On March 12, 2018, the Kern County Superior Court in California decided in favor of Freeman in regard to Manson's body. Freeman had Manson cremated on March 20, 2018. [101] As of February 7, 2020, Channels and Freeman still had petitions to California courts attempting to establish the heir of Manson's estate. At that time, Channels was attempting to force Freeman to submit DNA to the court for testing. [102]

Involvement with Scientology

Manson began studying Scientology while incarcerated with the help of fellow inmate Lanier Rayner, and in July 1961, Manson listed his religion as Scientology. [103] A September 1961 prison report argues that Manson "appears to have developed a certain amount of insight into his problems through his study of this discipline". [104] Upon his release in 1967, Manson traveled to Los Angeles where he reportedly "met local Scientologists and attended several parties for movie stars". [105] [106] [107] Manson completed 150 hours of auditing. [108] Manson's "right hand man", Bruce M. Davis, worked at the Church of Scientology headquarters in London from November 1968 to April 1969." [109]

Relationships and alleged child

In 2009, Los Angeles disk jockey Matthew Roberts released correspondence and other evidence indicating that he might be Manson's biological son. Roberts' biological mother claims that she was a member of the Manson Family who left in mid-1967 after being raped by Manson she returned to her parents' home to complete the pregnancy, gave birth on March 22, 1968, and put Roberts up for adoption. CNN conducted a DNA test between Matthew Roberts and Manson's known biological grandson Jason Freeman in 2012, showing that Roberts and Freeman did not share DNA. [100] Roberts subsequently attempted to establish that Manson was his father through a direct DNA test which proved definitively that Roberts and Manson were not related. [110]

In 2014, it was announced [ ¿por quién? ] that the imprisoned Manson was engaged to 26-year-old Afton Elaine Burton and had obtained a marriage license on November 7. [111] Manson gave Burton the nickname "Star". She had been visiting him in prison for at least nine years and maintained several websites that proclaimed his innocence. [112] The wedding license expired on February 5, 2015, without a marriage ceremony taking place. [113] Journalist Daniel Simone reported that the wedding was cancelled after Manson discovered that Burton only wanted to marry him so that she and friend Craig Hammond could use his corpse as a tourist attraction after his death. [113] [114] According to Simone, Manson believed that he would never die and may simply have used the possibility of marriage as a way to encourage Burton and Hammond to continue visiting him and bringing him gifts. Burton said on her website that the reason that the marriage did not take place was merely logistical. Manson was suffering from an infection and had been in a prison medical facility for two months and could not receive visitors. She said that she still hoped that the marriage license would be renewed and the marriage would take place. [113]

Psychology

On April 11, 2012, Manson was denied release at his 12th parole hearing, which he did not attend. After his March 27, 1997, parole hearing, Manson refused to attend any of his later hearings. The panel at that hearing noted that Manson had a "history of controlling behavior" and "mental health issues" including schizophrenia and paranoid delusional disorder, and was too great a danger to be released. [115] The panel also noted that Manson had received 108 rules violation reports, had no indication of remorse, no insight into the causative factors of the crimes, lacked understanding of the magnitude of the crimes, had an exceptional, callous disregard for human suffering and had no parole plans. [116] At the April 11, 2012, parole hearing, it was determined that Manson would not be reconsidered for parole for another 15 years, i.e. not before 2027, at which time he would have been 92 years old. [117]

Impacto cultural

Beginning in January 1970, the left-wing newspapers Los Angeles Free Press y Tuesday's Child embraced Manson as a hero-figure, and Tuesday's Child proclaimed him "Man of the Year". In June 1970, Piedra rodante made him their cover story in "Charles Manson: The Incredible Story of the Most Dangerous Man Alive". [118] A Piedra rodante writer visited the Los Angeles District Attorney's office while preparing that story, [119] and he was shocked by a photograph of the "Healter [sic] Skelter" that Manson's disciples had written on a wall in their victim's blood. [120] Prosecutor Vincent Bugliosi pointed out the dispute in the underground press over whether Manson was "Christ returned" or "a sick symbol of our times". [ cita necesaria ]

Bernardine Dohrn of the Weather Underground reportedly said of the Tate murders: "Dig it, first they killed those pigs, then they ate dinner in the same room with them, then they even shoved a fork into a victim's stomach. Wild!" [121] Neo-Nazi and Manson follower James Mason founded the Universal Order, a group that has influenced other movements such as the neo-Nazi terrorist group the Atomwaffen Division. The Universal Order's name and logo is a swastika between the scales of justice, remotely designed by Manson. [ aclaración necesaria ] Bugliosi quoted a BBC employee's assertion that a "neo-Manson cult" existed in Europe, represented by approximately 70 rock bands playing songs by Manson and "songs in support of him". [74]

Música

Manson was a struggling musician, seeking to make it big in Hollywood between 1967 and 1969. The Beach Boys did a cover of one of his songs. Other songs were publicly released only after the trial for the Tate murders started. On March 6, 1970, LIE, an album of Manson music, was released. [122] [123] [124] [125] This included "Cease to Exist", a Manson composition the Beach Boys had recorded with modified lyrics and the title "Never Learn Not to Love". [126] [127] Over the next couple of months only about 300 of the album's 2,000 copies sold. [128]

There have been several other releases of Manson recordings – both musical and spoken. One of these, The Family Jams, includes two compact discs of Manson's songs recorded by the Family in 1970, after Manson and the others had been arrested. Guitar and lead vocals are supplied by Steve Grogan [129] [ verificación fallida ] additional vocals are supplied by Lynette Fromme, Sandra Good, Catherine Share, and others. [ cita necesaria ] One Mind, an album of music, poetry, and spoken word, new at the time of its release, in April 2005, was put out under a Creative Commons license. [130] [131]

American rock band Guns N' Roses recorded Manson's "Look at Your Game, Girl", included as an unlisted 13th track on their 1993 album "The Spaghetti Incident?" [74] [ verificación fallida ] [132] [133] "My Monkey", which appears on Portrait of an American Family by the American rock band Marilyn Manson, includes the lyrics "I had a little monkey / I sent him to the country and I fed him on gingerbread / Along came a choo-choo / Knocked my monkey cuckoo / And now my monkey's dead." These lyrics are from Manson's "Mechanical Man", [134] which is heard on LIE. Crispin Glover covered "Never Say 'Never' to Always" on his album The Big Problem ≠ The Solution. The Solution=Let It Be released in 1989.

Musical performers such as Kasabian, [135] Spahn Ranch, [136] and Marilyn Manson [137] derived their names from Manson and his lore.


Op-Ed: The human side of Charlie Manson

Charles Manson died on Sunday night after being admitted to a hospital in Bakersfield on Wednesday. The infamous cult leader, who was convicted along with three of his followers in 1971 of the murders of actress Sharon Tate and six others, was 83 years old.

How do we assess Manson? If early reports are any indication, it is with the same lack of nuance, the same hyperbole on which we’ve long relied. The Associated Press described him on Thursday as “a demonic presence,” “the living embodiment of evil” and quoted former special correspondent Linda Deutsch, who covered his trial: “In addition to killing seven people, he killed a whole counterculture.”

The temptation to see Manson in apocalyptic terms is understandable. In her 1978 essay “The White Album,” Joan Didion wrote, “On August 9, 1969, I was sitting in the shallow end of my sister-in-law’s swimming pool in Beverly Hills when she received a phone call from a friend who had just heard about the murders at Sharon Tate Polanski’s house on Cielo Drive. … There were twenty dead, no, twelve, ten, eighteen. Black masses were imagined, and bad trips blamed.”

Charles Manson was no devil but a human being, as his death makes clear.

In a nation now grappling with mass killings one after another, the actual number of Manson’s victims seems almost minimal, even quaint. But it’s worth remembering the terror stirred by the murders, the chaos they implied. Tate was 8½ months pregnant when she died the killers wrote “Pig” across the front door in her blood. The following night, the Manson family killed Leno and Rosemary LaBianca at their home in Los Feliz, scrawling “Healter Skelter” (sic) on the refrigerator, also using the victims’ blood.

I was a child on the other side of the country, and I recall my own fear in the wake of the killings, the disturbing satanic details, the violation of the safety of home. That my children now take such realities for granted suggests something of how desensitized we as a culture have become.

Manson, though, was no devil but a human being, as his death makes clear. I don’t say that to soften or absolve him. But I don’t believe in demons people are frightening enough. Indeed, to accept Manson as a person, to see him through the filter of his humanity, is to acknowledge what we resist: that he was perhaps not so utterly different from the rest of us.

Manson’s history was horrific his mother did time in prison for armed robbery when he was young and he lived with relatives who tormented him in the name of making him tough. In the 2013 biography “Manson: The Life and Times of Charles Manson,” Jeff Guinn traced one such incident, in which his uncle made him go to first grade in a dress as punishment for having cried in class.

A quarter-century later, after his release from the federal penitentiary at Terminal Island in San Pedro, Manson moved to San Francisco and began to collect the drifters and young women who would become his so-called family.

One of Manson’s inspirations was Dale Carnegie, whose 1936 book “How to Win Friends and Influence People” offered him tips on manipulating others to his ends. Among his successful strategies? Convincing his acolytes to commit the murders he planned, then claiming innocence since he did not actually kill anyone.

This is, of course, horrific, venal — and recognizably human at the same time. Just look at the news evasion of responsibility is our new national pastime. You might say Manson was ahead of his time, spinning out a series of false narratives about race war and his own messianic status that ensnared his followers.

Although much has been made of his efforts to join the Southern California music scene (he befriended Beach Boy Dennis Wilson, among others), it’s a stretch to suggest Manson’s turn to murder was a reaction to his failed rock star fantasies.


Manson created a cult around himself called the "Family" that he hoped to use to bring about Armageddon through a race war. He named this scenario "Helter Skelter," after the 1968 Beatles song of the same name.

Manson believed that once African-Americans rose up against white people in an end-of-times race war, he and his Family, which consisted mostly of women, would be the only ones left standing at its conclusion.

The Family sought to quicken this apocalyptic timeline by carrying out prominent murders of celebrities and pinning them on African-Americans so that people would take notice.

Manson compelled his followers to believe him by exhibiting many qualities common to gurus and spiritual leaders around the world, and also used LSD to influence their thinking.


ARTÍCULOS RELACIONADOS

In the years that would follow, Lake became more loyal to Manson, even as he grew more violent in the days leading up to the murderous rampage that members of his cult went on in 1969.

Lake did not take part in the two-day summer murder spree in which Manson and members of his cult killed seven people, including pregnant actress Sharon Tate, Abigail Folger, Wojciech Frykowski, Leno and Rosemary LaBianca, Steven Parent and Jay Sebring.

She was arrested along with the other cult members at Barker Ranch in 1969 but maintained throughout police interviews that she knew nothing of the murders.

Lake did not take part in the two-day murder spree in which Manson and members of his cult killed seven people, including film director Roman Polanski's pregnant wife Sharon Tate (above with the director in 1968)

Lake said she couldn't understand why the women who she previously considered friends from the Manson family - Susan Atkins, Patricia Krenwinkle and Leslie van Houton (above) had stood by the murderer during the trial

She went on to provide the district attorney with incriminating evidence and testimony against them.

In 1970, Lake was institutionalized for schizophrenia which doctors said was caused by emotional trauma.

When she later faced Manson in court, his defense attorney asked her: 'Are you still in love with Mr. Manson now?' She responded: 'I guess so' as she looked at the man who she had a deep relationship in the years prior.

Manson blurted out: 'You loved everybody. Don't put it all on Mr Manson.'

The court room burst into laughter at Manson's statement.

Lake penned this book 'Member of the Family' out October 24 on her time with the madman

Recalling the incident in her book, Lake said: 'I hadn't seen it before, how he could truly work a room. This man didn't mean to be funny. he was deflecting responsibility from himself by humiliating me and dismissing my value as a human being,' she said.

She said that was the moment she realized he was a 'scruffy little man with an enormous ego'.

'He was a fake, a fraud, a pimp, and a con artist. And now I was truly free of him,' she said.

She also said she could not understand why Patricia Krenwinkle, Leslie van Houton and Susan Atkins stood by Manson.

All three famously carved X's on their foreheads.

'The girls with the Xs on their foreheads? That part always blew me away,' Lake said. 'They continued to hang on, be groupies.'

After the trial concluded and Manson was convicted on first degree murder charges, Lake said she tried to move forward with her life. She is now married, has raised three children and earned a master's degree in education.

Manson, however, has been behind bars for more than four decades after being put away for the series of murders in 1969.

He was convicted of leading a cult in which disaffected young people living in a commune followed his orders and were ultimately turned into killers.

Manson, Atkins, Krenwinkle and Leslie Van Houten were convicted of murder and sentenced to death for the killings.

Susan Atkins, Patricia Krenwinkle and Leslie Van Houten (above) were convicted of murder and sentenced to death for killings at two gruesome scenes in the summer of 1969

They brutally murdered director Tate and six others in Los Angeles over two nights.

He had ordered his family members to slaughter Tate, who was eight-and-a-half months pregnant, and three of her friends at her home above Beverly Hills.

Stephen Parent was a fifth unfortunate victim that night. He had driven to the property to see if caretaker William Garreston wanted to buy his AM/FM Clock radio, and had stayed on for a beer at the guest house. He was shot multiple times when he wound down the window at the electric gate as he left.

The following night the Family butchered small business owners Leno and Rosemary La Bianca, in their home in Los Angeles.

The murders were carried out in upscale, mostly white neighborhoods of Los Angeles in order to blame the crimes on African Americans, in the hope of sparking what he termed a 'Helter Skelter' race war.

Manson, who was not actually present but ordered the killings, applied for parole in 2012 but was denied release and is not eligible to apply again until 2027.

He was hospitalized earlier this year suffering from intestinal bleeding.


Chief prosecutor Vincent Bugliosi said he would seek the death penalty

LOS ANGELES (AP) &mdash Following a seven-month trial, Charles Manson and three of his followers were convicted of murder and conspiracy in the August 1969 killings of actress Sharon Tate and six others.

The Associated Press is republishing the following article on the verdicts to mark the anniversary of the killings. It first appeared on Jan. 26, 1971.

By Linda Deutsch
Associated Press Writer

LOS ANGELES &mdash Charles Manson, shaggy leader of a cult-like clan of hippie types, was convicted Monday of first-degree murder and conspiracy along with three women followers in the savage slayings of actress Sharon Tate and six others.

The state said it will ask the death penalty for all.

The defendants, who staged wild outbursts during their seven-month trial, sat passively as verdicts were returned on the 27 counts against them.

After jurors were polled, Manson muttered audibly, referring to them: &ldquoI think they&rsquore all guilty.&rdquo After the verdicts were all in, he shouted at the judge: &ldquoWe&rsquore still not allowed to put on a defense. You won&rsquot outlive that, old man.&rdquo

The jury of seven men and five women, who had deliberated 42 hours and 40 minutes since receiving the case Jan.16, was ordered to return to court at 9 a.m. Thursday for the penalty-phase of the trial. They will continue to be sequestered.

The prosecutor said he has about 50 witnesses ready for the penalty trial. The defense has said it will put on a case as long or longer than the state&rsquos, seeking life imprisonment instead of the death penalty on the contention there still is doubt as to guilt.

Death or life imprisonment are the only possible verdicts for convictions on first-degree murder.

Under California law the same jury that returns a first-degree murder-conspiracy conviction must meet again at a second trial to fix the penalty.

Had the verdict been second-degree murder, the penalty would have been an automatic five years to life and there would have been no penalty trial.

The defendants were charged with murder-conspiracy in the August 1969 slayings of the beautiful actress and four visitors to her mansion, and in the killings a night later of a wealthy merchant couple.

Manson, 36, was accused of ordering the killings to touch off a race war he believed was heralded in a Beatles song, after which he expected to take over power.

The other defendants were Susan Atkins, 22, Patricia Krenwinkel, 23, and Leslie Van Houten, 21.

Miss Van Houten was charged with conspiracy in all the killings, but with murder only in those of market owners Leno and Rosemary LaBianca.

The defendants, banished from court Dec. 22 for shouting, filed in smiling and chatting. The women wore prison uniforms with ribbons in their long hair. Manson wore a rumpled white shirt with a blue scarf. His hair was disheveled, and he sported a new goatee.

All arose and walked out quietly after the verdicts &mdash read one by one for each of the 27 counts &mdash were finished. A score of sheriff&rsquos deputies was in the packed 92-seat courtroom to maintain order.

Deputy Dist. Atty. Vincent Bugliosi, the chief prosecutor, told newsmen he will seek the death penalty: &ldquoI don&rsquot enjoy it, but it is necessary.&rdquo

Of the verdict, he said: &ldquoI am very, very pleased, and the Los Angeles Police Department is very happy. We expected the verdict, but until the clerk reads the verdict you don&rsquot know.&rdquo

The deciding factor? &ldquoThe overwhelming amount of evidence.&rdquo

Chief defense counsel Paul Fitzgerald, said the defendants told him Monday night they &ldquoexpected the worst.&rdquo He described the verdict as anticipated.

&ldquoWe lost the case when we lost our change of venue. We thought we had as much chance to win the case in Los Angeles as they had of winning the Sam Sheppard,&rdquo he said, referring to a Cleveland doctor convicted in the 1960s of slaying his wife in a sensational case. The Supreme Court ultimately overturned the conviction.

Fitzgerald said the defense would argue at the penalty trial that pretrial publicity hurt the defendants. He said he will plead for a sentence of life imprisonment on grounds there is still some doubt as to guilt.

Maxwell Keith, representing Miss Van Houten, said he had felt she had a fighting chance if not for acquittal, for second-degree murder: Miss Van Houten was not a member of the killer party at the Tate home.

&ldquoShe reacted a lot better than I did,&rdquo he said of the verdict. &ldquoShe didn&rsquot turn a hair. She seemed more solicitous of me.&rdquo

Manson&rsquos attorney, Irving Kanarek, declined to comment on the verdict.

The verdict capped a trial in which the state called 84 witnesses, and the defense rested without putting on a case. The transcript ran nearly 6 million words, and there were 297 exhibits.

The prosecutor in final arguments called the killings &ldquomonstrous, macabre and nightmarish . perhaps the most inhuman horror-filled hour of savage murder and human slaughter in the annals of recorded crime.&rdquo

He called Manson &ldquosomeone with a sick and morbid lust and preoccupation with death.&rdquo The women, he said, were Manson&rsquos &ldquorobots and zombies.&rdquo

The defense argued that someone other than the defendants might have done the killings. Attorneys said Manson was being prosecuted for his unpopular lifestyle, and that if the women were really robots, they couldn&rsquot perform the premeditation needed for first-degree murder.

The case first made headlines Aug. 10, 1969, when a maid found the bloody bodies of victims at the Tate estate.

The eight-months-pregnant honey blond actress, 25, wife of director Roman Polanski, lay stabbed on the living room floor near the body of Jay Sebring, 26, Hollywood hairstylist and her onetime fiancé.

Outside were the bodies of Polish playboy Wojciech Frykowski, 37, and his girlfriend, coffee heiress Abigail Folger, 26. Slain in his car was Stephen Parent, 18, shot as he left after visiting the caretaker.

&ldquoPIG&rdquo was smeared in blood on the door. A towel &ldquohood&rdquo covered Sebring&rsquos head. Police called the slayings &ldquoritualistic.&rdquo

The next day, a few miles away, the LaBiancas were found stabbed to death amid bloody scrawlings.

For four months police were baffled. Then, acting on a tip from a woman who said Miss Atkins told of the killings while the two shared a jail cell, police made mass arrests of Manson and his family, then living in a remote commune near Death Valley.

Manson, only 5 feet 6 but with what his followers called near-hypnotic powers, quickly emerged as the central figure. The son of a prostitute and habitué of prisons and institutions most of his life, he had formed his &ldquofamily&rdquo in San Francisco&rsquos hippie district and come to the Hollywood area to seek a singing career. Family members called him &ldquoGod&rdquo and &ldquoJesus&rdquo and &ldquoSatan&rdquo.

A onetime clan member, Linda Kasabian, star state witness at the trial, said Manson sent out two killer parties to the Tate and LaBianca homes, ordering the second set of killings because the first were &ldquotoo messy.&rdquo

Mrs. Kasabian, granted immunity from prosecution for her story, said Manson went along himself on the LaBianca trip but left before the actual killings. In 19 days on the stand, she told of seeing two killings and of hearing screams of other victims.

In Milford, New Hampshire, Mrs. Kasabian said of the verdict: &ldquoI&rsquom not surprised, but my heart really grieves for them.&rdquo

Other witnesses said Miss Atkins admitted killing Miss Tate after the latter pleaded to live and have her baby, then tasting her blood and finding it &ldquobeautiful.&rdquo

Witnesses said Miss Krenwinkel complained that her hand hurt after the Tate killings because she had stabbed so much, and that Miss Van Houten repeatedly stabbed a body that was already dead, and enjoyed it.

When the defense&rsquos turn came, attorneys surprised the court by resting. They said that if the women defendants were allowed to testify, they would tell stories that would incriminate themselves and clear Manson. The attorney said they would not allow this.

Manson testified in the jury&rsquos absence and said he&rsquod killed no one and ordered no one killed.

In a rumbling discourse he explained his lifestyle and said of women: &ldquoThese children who come at you with knives, they&rsquore your children. I didn&rsquot teach them. You did.&rdquo

He told the women not to testify and declined to repeat his story for jurors.

Trial highlights included frequent shouts and songs from defendants that got them banished to nearby detention rooms, where they listened via loudspeaker. Manson lunged once at the judge. Attorneys were jailed for contempt. One attorney vanished on a camping trip and had to be replaced.

Through it all, a band of loyal Manson clan women maintained a vigil in the street outside the Hall of Justice, waiting for their &ldquofather&rdquo to be freed from &ldquothe tower.&rdquo

Manson and Miss Atkins still face murder charges in the 1969 killing of Malibu musician Gary Hinman. Manson also is charged with murdering Donald &ldquoShorty&rdquo Shea, a hand who vanished from the clan&rsquos movie ranch commune. His body has not been found.


Manson was saved from execution when the California Supreme Court outlawed the death penalty in 1972. During his decades in the California State Prison in Corcoran, Manson received more mail than any other prisoner in the U.S. He was denied parole a dozen times and died, apparently of natural causes, on Nov. 19, 2017. He was 83.

Laurie Levenson, a professor at Loyola Law School who followed high-profile cases, described Manson in 2009 as the worst of the worst: "If you're going to be evil, you have to be off-the-charts evil, and Charlie Manson was off-the-charts evil," Levenson told CNN.

Despite the vicious brutality of the murders he committed or ordered, however, Manson became an icon of sorts to the more radical elements of the counterculture movement. His image is still seen on posters and T-shirts.

To others, he was an object of morbid curiosity. In addition to the best-selling "Helter Skelter," which was written by Manson prosecutor Vincent Bugliosi, and the TV movie released two years later, many other books and movies related to the Manson story have been released.